direct and indirect effect of pesticides

Direct and Indirect Effects of Urbanization, Pesticides and Wild Insect Pollinators on Mango Yield

Gabriel Marcacci, Soubadra Devy, Arne Wenzel, Vikas S. Rao, Shabarish Kumar S., Nils Nölke, Vasuki V. Belavadi, Teja Tscharntke, Ingo Grass, Catrin Westphal

Journal of Applied Ecology | July 24, 2023

Expanding cities increasingly encroach fertile farmlands, questioning the viability of maintaining agriculture within and around them. Yet, our knowledge on how urbanization influences pollinator communities and the provision of pollination services to crops is limited, especially for the urbanization hotspots of the Global South.

Mango Mangifera indica is one of the most important fruit crops in tropical countries. To analyse the dependency of mango on its main insect pollinators, and the direct and indirect effects of urbanization and insecticides on pollinator abundance and mango yield, we conducted a pollinator exclusion experiment and sampled flower visitors on 16 mango farms spread across rural–urban landscapes in Bengaluru, a South Indian megacity.